Dimensional Modeling / Leadership
Training and Development (Useful Links)
Lee, and Terrence Deal. Reframing Organizations.
Second. Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
(Amazon Book Review)
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now it is broken link; retrieval of this material is about year
CHAPTER 17. REFRAMING
Chapter 17 presents a multiframe
perspective on leadership. Though leadership is widely
viewed as a cure-all, it is often misunderstood. The authors
identify basic elements of
leadership and distinguish it from related concepts of power,
authority, and management.
For Bolman and Deal, leadership
is situational (dependent on organizational,
environmental, and/or historical context), relational (a
relationship between leader and
followers), and distinct from position (not synonymous
with authority or high position). It
is a subtle process of mutual influence that fuses thought,
feeling, and action to produce
cooperative effort in the service of the purpose and values of
both leader and followers.
In their exploration of leadership, the authors describe
research and popular
approaches, such as the Managerial
Grid and the
Hersey/Blanchard situational leadership
They also examine issues related to leadership and gender, addressing
women lead differently from men and why they have had limited
success in achieving the
Because leadership is complex, leaders need multiple
frames. Each frame offers
different perspective on leadership, summarized in Table 17.3
of the text. The chapter
explores in depth the skills and processes associated with
leadership from each of the four
Little is written about structural leadership, probably because
structural theorists are often cynical about the concept. But
the authors argue that
structural leadership plays a decisive role in shaping organizations.
It can be powerful
and enduring, even if more subtle and less heroic than
leadership based on other
frames. Effective structural leaders are social architects
who apply analytical and
design skills to diagnose an organization’s needs and develop
They need not be petty tyrants who manage by detail
and fiat. Structural leaders are
successful when they have the right answer for their organization
and can get their
answer accepted and implemented. Good structural leaders:
(1) do their homework;
(2) develop a new model of
the relationship among structure, strategy, and
environment; (3) focus on implementation; (4) continually experiment,
Human resource leadership.
Until recently, human resource conceptions of
leadership have dominated the management literature. An effective
a catalyst and facilitator who motivates and empowers subordinates.
human resource leaders is based on talent, sensitivity, and service—not
force. Effective human resource leaders use skill and artistry
accomplish extraordinary results. They build organizations that
a highly committed and productive work force. When they are
ineffective, human resource leaders risk looking naive and weak. Good human
(1) believe in people and communicate their belief; (2) are visible
and (3) empower others—increase participation, provide support,
and move decision making as far down the organization as
Political leadership. Successful political leaders
are advocates who understand that
to begin with an understanding of others’ concerns and interests.
Good political leaders (1) clarify what they want and what they can get;
(2) assess the
distribution of power and interests; (3) build linkages to other stakeholders; and
negotiate second, and use coercion only if necessary.
Symbolic leadership. Effective symbolic leaders are
prophets, artists, and poets whose
is to interpret experience and create a meaningful workplace.
leaders—visionaries who bring out the best in followers and
move them toward
higher and more universal needs and purposes. Effective symbolic
a consistent set of cultural rules and practices: they (1) lead
use symbols to capture attention; (3) frame experience; (4) communicate
a vision; (5)
tell stories; and (6) respect and use history.
The chapter ends with an integrated four-frame view of leadership and a
(1) understand your own frame and its limits; (2) capitalize on
work to improve weaknesses; and (3) build teams that supply leadership
all four modes—structural,
human resource, political, and symbolic.
Power: The ability to make things happen,
to create an effect.
Authority: Power rooted in the perceived
legitimacy of one’s office or
Management: The process of running an organization
or getting things done through planning,
organizing, staffing, controlling, and leading.
Leadership: A process of mutual influence
fusing thought, feeling, and
produce cooperative effort in the service of purposes and values
both the leader and the led.